<canvas> and SVG. You can design and render simple 3D models on the Web. Zdog is a pseudo-3D engine. Its geometries exist in 3D space, but are rendered as flat shapes.
SpriteJS is a lightweight 2D canvas rendering engine for modern browsers. Manipulate the sprites in canvas as you do with the DOM elements.
SpriteJS can be used with D3.js, Proton and Matter-js.
Rough.js is a canvas based, lightweight library that lets you draw in a sketchy, hand-drawn-like, style.
Rough.js defines primitives to draw lines, curves, arcs, polygons, circles, and ellipses.
gaussian, grayscale, highpass, invert, laplacian, prewitt, rgb, roberts, saturation, sepia, sharpen, sobel, thresholding, lowpass 3x3, lowpass 5x5
It is also completely library independent and can be safely used next to NodeJS, jQuery, YUI, Scriptaculous, MooTools, etc.
Fabric also has SVG-to-canvas (and canvas-to-SVG) parser.
Atrament is a lightweight library that enables the user to draw smooth, natural drawings and handwriting on the HTML canvas.
canvid is a tiny dependency free library for playback of relatively short videos on canvas elements.